Ερώτηση περί Συμφωνίας λόγω ΑΟΖ

Ν. Λυγερός




Η ερώτηση είναι απλή, χωρίς να είναι απλοϊκή. Ποιος είναι ο λόγος μετά από διαπραγματεύσεις που αφορούσαν επίσημα το θέμα της νέας ονομασίας των Σκοπίων να υπάρχει η ελληνική ΑΟΖ; Πιο συγκεκριμένα το άρθρο 13 της Συμφωνίας έχει ως εξής:

Άρθρο 13

Λαμβάνοντας υπ' όψιν το γεγονός ότι το δεύτερο Συμβαλλόμενο Μέρος είναι περίκλειστο κράτος, τα Συμβαλλόμενα Μέρη θα καθοδηγούνται από τις σχετικές προβλέψεις της Σύμβασης των Ηνωμένων Εθνών για το Δίκαιο της Θάλασσας που θα έχουν και πρακτική εφαρμογή αλλά θα εφαρμόζονται και όταν θα συνομολογούνται συμφωνίες που αναφέρονται στο Άρθρο 18 της παρούσας Συμφωνίας. [σ. 14/20]


Βέβαια κάποιος που δεν είναι ειδικός δεν θα δει την αναφορά στην ελληνική ΑΟΖ επειδή δεν έχει καταγραφεί ή έκφραση, αλλά όσοι έχουν διαβάσει το Δίκαιο της θάλασσας (UNCLOS) και ειδικά το πέμπτο μέρος που αφορά την έννοια της ΑΟΖ (ΕΕΖ) γνωρίζουν τα άρθρα 61, 62 και 69. Το άρθρο 61 αφορά την διατήρηση των ζωντανών πόρων.

Article 61

Conservation of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall determine the allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone.

2. The coastal State, taking into account the best scientific evidence available to it, shall ensure through proper conservation and management measures that the maintenance of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone is not endangered by over-exploitation. As appropriate, the coastal State and competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, shall cooperate to this end.

3. Such measures shall also be designed to maintain or restore populations of harvested species at levels which can produce the maximum sustainable yield, as qualified by relevant environmental and economic factors, including the economic needs of coastal fishing communities and the special requirements of developing States, and taking into account fishing patterns, the interdependence of stocks and any generally recommended international minimum standards, whether subregional, regional or global.

4. In taking such measures the coastal State shall take into consideration the effects on species associated with or dependent upon harvested species with a view to maintaining or restoring populations of such associated or dependent species above levels at which their reproduction may become seriously threatened.

5. Available scientific information, catch and fishing effort statistics, and other data relevant to the conservation of fish stocks shall be contributed and exchanged on a regular basis through competent international organizations, whether subregional, regional or global, where appropriate and with participation by all States concerned, including States whose nationals are allowed to fish in the exclusive economic zone.



Το άρθρο 62 τη χρήση των ζωντανών πόρων.

Article 62

Utilization of the living resources

1. The coastal State shall promote the objective of optimum utilization of the living resources in the exclusive economic zone without prejudice to article 61.

2. The coastal State shall determine its capacity to harvest the living resources of the exclusive economic zone. Where the coastal State does not have the capacity to harvest the entire allowable catch, it shall, through agreements or other arrangements and pursuant to the terms, conditions, laws and regulations referred to in paragraph 4, give other States access to the surplus of the allowable catch, having particular regard to the provisions of articles 69 and 70, especially in relation to the developing States mentioned therein.

3. In giving access to other States to its exclusive economic zone under this article, the coastal State shall take into account all relevant factors, including, inter alia, the significance of the living resources of the area to the economy of the coastal State concerned and its other national interests, the provisions of articles 69 and 70, the requirements of developing States in the subregion or region in harvesting part of the surplus and the need to minimize economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone or which have made substantial efforts in research and identification of stocks.

4. Nationals of other States fishing in the exclusive economic zone shall comply with the conservation measures and with the other terms and conditions established in the laws and regulations of the coastal State. These laws and regulations shall be consistent with this Convention and may relate, inter alia, to the following:

(a) licensing of fishermen, fishing vessels and equipment, including payment of fees and other forms of remuneration, which, in the case of developing coastal States, may consist of adequate compensation in the field of financing, equipment and technology relating to the fishing industry;

(b) determining the species which may be caught, and fixing quotas of catch, whether in relation to particular stocks or groups of stocks or catch per vessel over a period of time or to the catch by nationals of any State during a specified period;

(c) regulating seasons and areas of fishing, the types, sizes and amount of gear, and the types, sizes and number of fishing vessels that may be used;
(d) fixing the age and size of fish and other species that may be caught;

(e) specifying information required of fishing vessels, including catch and effort statistics and vessel position reports;

(f) requiring, under the authorization and control of the coastal State, the conduct of specified fisheries research programmes and regulating the conduct of such research, including the sampling of catches, disposition of samples and reporting of associated scientific data;

(g) the placing of observers or trainees on board such vessels by the coastal State;

(h) the landing of all or any part of the catch by such vessels in the ports of the coastal State;

(i) terms and conditions relating to joint ventures or other cooperative arrangements;

(j) requirements for the training of personnel and the transfer of fisheries technology, including enhancement of the coastal State's capability of undertaking fisheries research;

(k) enforcement procedures.

5. Coastal States shall give due notice of conservation and management laws and regulations.



Και το Άρθρο 69 αφορά το δικαίωμα των περίκλειστων κρατών.

Article 69

Right of land-locked States

1. Land-locked States shall have the right to participate, on an equitable basis, in the exploitation of an appropriate part of the surplus of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the same subregion or region, taking into account the relevant economic and geographical circumstances of all the States concerned and in conformity with the provisions of this article and of articles 61 and 62.

2. The terms and modalities of such participation shall be established by the States concerned through bilateral, subregional or regional agreements taking into account, inter alia:

(a) the need to avoid effects detrimental to fishing communities or fishing industries of the coastal State;

(b) the extent to which the land-locked State, in accordance with the provisions of this article, is participating or is entitled to participate under existing bilateral, subregional or regional agreements in the exploitation of living resources of the exclusive economic zones of other coastal States;

(c) the extent to which other land-locked States and geographically disadvantaged States are participating in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zone of the coastal State and the consequent need to avoid a particular burden for any single coastal State or a part of it;

(d) the nutritional needs of the populations of the respective States.

3. When the harvesting capacity of a coastal State approaches a point which would enable it to harvest the entire allowable catch of the living resources in its exclusive economic zone, the coastal State and other States concerned shall cooperate in the establishment of equitable arrangements on a bilateral, subregional or regional basis to allow for participation of developing land-locked States of the same subregion or region in the exploitation of the living resources of the exclusive economic zones of coastal States of the subregion or region, as may be appropriate in the circumstances and on terms satisfactory to all parties. In the implementation of this provision the factors mentioned in paragraph 2 shall also be taken into account.

4. Developed land-locked States shall, under the provisions of this article, be entitled to participate in the exploitation of living resources only in the exclusive economic zones of developed coastal States of the same subregion or region having regard to the extent to which the coastal State, in giving access to other States to the living resources of its exclusive economic zone, has taken into account the need to minimize detrimental effects on fishing communities and economic dislocation in States whose nationals have habitually fished in the zone.

5. The above provisions are without prejudice to arrangements agreed upon in subregions or regions where the coastal States may grant to land-locked States of the same subregion or region equal or preferential rights for the exploitation of the living resources in the exclusive economic zones.



Με αυτά τα δεδομένα γίνεται κατανοητό ότι το άρθρο 13 της Συμφωνίας αφορά όντως στην ελληνική ΑΟΖ. Με άλλα λόγια ενώ δεν έχουμε ακόμα θεσπίσει την ΑΟΖ η διαπραγματευτική ομάδα την έβαλε ήδη εντός της Συμφωνίας για να μπορεί να υπάρξει αξιοποίηση εκ μέρους των Σκοπίων σε σχέση με τους ζωντανούς οργανισμούς. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι μιλούμε για αλιεία εκ μέρους των Σκοπίων μέσα στο Αιγαίο Πέλαγος. Πιο απλά λοιπόν οι Σκοπιανοί θα μπορούν να λειτουργούν σε αυτό το πλαίσιο χάρη σε δικό μας συμβιβασμό χωρίς βέβαια να έχουμε πάρει τίποτα. Αυτό οι απλοί Έλληνες ψαράδες το ξέρουν ή θα το μάθουν εκ των υστέρων. Γιατί να υπάρχει το Άρθρο 13 σε αυτή τη Συμφωνία που αφορούσε επίσημα στο θέμα της ονομασίας των Σκοπίων.







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